Star formation underway 250 million years after Big Bang

Old oxygen sheds new light on the beginning of the universe

To find out when the stars in MACS1149-JD1 started shining, Hashimoto's team used infrared data from the Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope to determine the observed brightness of the galaxy was well explained by a model in which the onset of star formation was well underway just 250 million years after the Big Bang. Here, the oxygen distribution detected with ALMA is depicted in green.

The new details revealed that light from a galaxy dubbed MACS1149-JD1 was 13.28 billion lightyears old, an worldwide team reported in the scientific journal Nature.

The maturity of the stars seen in MACS1149-JD1 raises the question of when the very first galaxies emerged from total darkness, an epoch astronomers call 'cosmic dawn'.

With the help of the Atacama large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, astronomers have detected the earliest signs of oxygen (red) distributed in the galaxy MACS1149-JD1. It's this light signal that ALMA has picked up some 13 billion years later, although in that time the expansion of the universe has stretched the light into the millimeter wavelength.

"I was thrilled to see the signal of the distant oxygen in the ALMA data", says Takuya Hashimoto, the lead author of the new paper and a researcher at both Osaka Sangyo University and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. By establishing the age of MACS1149-JD1, the team has effectively demonstrated that galaxies existed earlier than those we can now directly detect.

Hailing from a galaxy known as MACS1149-JD1, the oxygen signature dates back to about 500 million years after the Big Bang.

Note, astronomers were able to prove that the stars in MACS1149-JD1 was formed only after 250 million years after the Big Bang, which was an absolute record for the age of the heavenly bodies.

ME behind the eight ball as states sprint to legalize sports gambling
Had Congress made sports betting criminal - which it has not yet done - the sports gambling case this week would have been moot. But even as those jurisdictions began allowing internet wagers, a movement sprung up to abolish the games at the federal level.

Oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen will only form in the universe after stars first fusion and then die, spewing these elements into interstellar space.

The real breakthrough was the detection of oxygen in the galaxy, which is observable in the Leo constellation, though not with the naked eye.

"We have for the first time observed the very early stage of star formation in the universe".

"With MACS1149-JD1, we have managed to probe history beyond the limits of when we can actually detect galaxies with current facilities". The MACS1149-JD1 observation shows galaxies must have existed before any that are now detectable.

"Prior to our study, there were only theoretical predictions of the earliest star formation".

Richard Ellis, a senior astronomer at UCL and co-author of the paper, concludes: "Determining when cosmic dawn occurred is akin to the Holy Grail of cosmology and galaxy formation". Whether MACS1149-JD1 is just an outlier or the tip of an iceberg will have to wait for more observations. "Since we are all made of a processed stellar material, this is really finding our own origins".

Related News:

  • Microsoft Plans Low-Cost Tablet Line to Rival iPad

    Microsoft Plans Low-Cost Tablet Line to Rival iPad

    Anyway, the new Surface Hub 2 will be available starting next year and only selected customers will be able to try it out early. Standard Windows applications, though, could not run on the device, which left the Surface RT bereft of software.
    Gerrard 'begins talks' over Solanke and Defoe deals

    Gerrard 'begins talks' over Solanke and Defoe deals

    I think it's a big coup for the club and I've watched his interviews and I saw the fans afterwards and it was an incredible time for them.
    Chandigarh Ranked as 3rd Cleanest City in India | Swachh Survekshan 2018

    Chandigarh Ranked as 3rd Cleanest City in India | Swachh Survekshan 2018

    This time, the Union Ministry of Urban Development survey was conducted in 4,200 cities, covering a population of 40 crore. The results of sanitation survey announced by housing and urban affairs minister Hardeep Singh Puri yesterday.
  • WWE 'Smackdown' Up for Grabs as NBCUniversal Moves to Pin Down 'Raw'

    WWE 'Smackdown' Up for Grabs as NBCUniversal Moves to Pin Down 'Raw'

    It looks like SmackDown Live could be leaving USA Network sooner than later because of the fact Raw is such a large property. This is mainly because NBCUniversal wants to only keep Raw which will be three times more expensive than the current deal.
    Mothercare boss to return in shock U-turn as retailer plans store closures

    Mothercare boss to return in shock U-turn as retailer plans store closures

    There are fears hundreds of jobs could go as Mothercare announces big store closures. Its shares have lost 83 percent of their value over the past year .
    BT Plus will grant you unlimited mobile data when your Wi-Fi goes down

    BT Plus will grant you unlimited mobile data when your Wi-Fi goes down

    BT said it will now offer a minimum speed of 100Mbps for its ultrafast home broadband service, with speeds up to 314Mbps. BT Plus groups broadband and mobile into one plan - something that has been anticipated ever since BT bought EE.
  • Entertainment Responds To Stan Lee's $1 Billion Lawsuit

    Entertainment Responds To Stan Lee's $1 Billion Lawsuit

    Lee, who is 95, is the creator of hundreds of superheroes such as Spider-Man, The Hulk, Thor and Black Panther . In addition to the $1 billion, Lee is asking for an order to get the rights to his name back.
    Waco attorney speaks out on MSU settlement

    Waco attorney speaks out on MSU settlement

    MSU offiicals said the school will pay the settlement from its budgets and then sue insurance companies to recoup the costs. Olympic gold medalists Jordyn Wieber, Aly Raisman , Gabby Douglas and McKayla Maroney were among Nassar's victims.
    Meghan Markle's Sister Hospitalized With Ankle Injury

    Meghan Markle's Sister Hospitalized With Ankle Injury

    Samantha , who revealed she had bought a wedding gift despite not being invited, said her relationship with Meghan was "strained". She recently detailed her plans for a tell-all book about Markle potentially titled " The Diary of Princess Pushy's Sister ".
  • Tesla data confirms Utah crash details, NHTSA investigating

    Tesla data confirms Utah crash details, NHTSA investigating

    The 2014 Tesla was reportedly traveling at high speed when it hit a wall then caught fire last week, the NTSB said in a release. This photo provided by Tesla shows a 2017 Tesla Model 3, a vehicle that has a semiautonomous driving system called Autopilot.
    Petrol prices up again

    Petrol prices up again

    Since March this year petrol and diesel fuel prices have been rising increasing by 4.2p and 4.1p per litre respectively. Diesel cars faced the biggest price hike with average cost per litre rose by 1p to 127p per litre .
    East Coast main line to be brought back under public control

    East Coast main line to be brought back under public control

    The Government is to take back control of the East Coast rail franchise after its private operators lost money . Virgin Trains East Coast's contract will be ended on June 24.


Most liked

Tennis player smashes racket against umpire's chair in post-match tantrum
The game was delicately poised at 30-30 but that decision ultimately cost Pliskova the game as she seems to lose her composure. Sports fans also took to social media to point out that several calls made by the umpire were wrong.

IPL 2018: MI vs KXIP IPL Match Highlights Match 50
It means obviously someone else has let you down and it's not a whole team effort. "We've seen this happening a lot in football". KXIP also has 12 points, but it slipped to No. 6 on an inferior net run-rate than both Mumbai and Rajasthan Royals .

Everton end ties with Allardyce
However, despite keeping West Ham safe, Sullivan said Moyes was only regarded as a short-term fix. Sam Allardyce is fuming after his dismissal as Everton manager yesterday.

People Dead & Another Injured After Shooting At Home In Ponder
He said that he did not know her exact condition, but that he didn't believe that her injuries were life-threatening. In her Facebook post, Simpson said she had been shot and was likely facing more surgeries.

Buffalo Bills to Retire Thurman Thomas' Jersey Number
But there comes a time when a player is so legendary to a team and a city, no one should be allowed to wear his number ever again. He also excelled as part of the Bills passing game, finishing with 500 or more receiving yards four times.

Emilia Clarke paid the same as male stars on Game of Thrones
With Solo: A Star Wars Story now less than a couple of weeks away, attention is starting to turn to the movie's release and it's stars.

Neymar to Real would be tough for Barcelona, says Messi
If the transfer transpires, it will be a hard pill to swallow for Catalan fans and even Lionel Messi is no exception. Messi added that his future remains at Barca.

Senate votes to save net neutrality rules
Pai argued that the Obama-era commission was too heavy handed with its regulation and stifled small internet service providers. Falcon agrees. "He doesn't have loyalty to the people who serve within the administration", he says of Trump .

NBA announces finalists for season awards
Harden, who led the league in scoring, has twice been a runner-up for the award, including past year when Russell Westbrook won. Anthony Davis is also up for defensive player of the year alongside Jazz bigman Rudy Gobert and 76ers centre Joel Embiid .

Mehmet Hakan Atilla of Halkbank gets time in prison by United States judge
His conviction followed a four-week trial in which Atilla testified in his own defense. The bank has previously said that all of its transactions have been lawful.

Amazon Alexa developers get eight new voices
More recently, Amazon launched the " Remember This " feature for Alexa, essentially giving the virtual assistant a memory. Polly uses advanced deep learning technologies to synthesise speech that sounds like a human voice.

Man's rant at workers speaking Spanish goes viral
As a reference, only 51 percent of New Yorkers actually speak English at home, according to a 2012 WNYC report. Instead, his fellow customers laughed at his rant, especially his threat to report the restaurant to the U.S.

Ford to resume F-150 production Friday at Dearborn Truck Plant
In between, the Ford team received a United Kingdom import licence for the die - a mere two hours before the plane touched down. The company expects production to be in full force at both plants by the end of the day Monday, a spokesperson confirmed.

Won't allow anything threatening India's security: North Korea
It may be recalled that in October previous year , India had made it clear that it would not shut its embassy in North Korea. The two leaders also agreed on enhancing people-to-people relations in the field of education and culture.

Facebook Rolling Out Stories Archive, Cloud Storage And Audio Posts
WhatsApp Stories now counts 450 million daily active users, while Instagram Stories has racked up 300 million daily active users. It'll automatically save your clips after they expire so that you can view them whenever or choose to re-share them.