Taking antibiotics increases the risk of developing from kidney stones

Small children are prescribed antibiotics more than any other group

After adjustments for age, sex, race, urinary tract infection, other medications and medical conditions, patients who received sulfa drugs were more than twice as likely as those not exposed to antibiotics to have kidney stones, the researchers said.

While scientists have known about the changes antibiotics have on the human microbiome - crucial to our day-to-day health - this is the first time that a disruption in the microbiome has been linked to the occurrence of kidney stones. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.33 (2.19 to 2.48) for sulfas, 1.88 (1.75 to 2.01) for cephalosporins, 1.67 (1.54 to 1.81) for fluoroquinolones, 1.70 (1.55 to 1.88) for nitrofurantoin/methenamine, and 1.27 (1.18 to 1.36) for broad-spectrum penicillins.

Antibiotics could increase the risk of painful kidney stones. "So if they were prescribed at, say, 15 years of age, the risk was much higher than if it was prescribed later in life", said Dr. Tasian.

The exact reason why kidney stones are on the rise is unknown, but the study has found that antibiotic intake may play a key role, especially considering the fact that children are given more antibiotics than adults.

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Results Exposure to any of five different antibiotic classes 3-12 months before index date was associated with nephrolithiasis.

That's according to a new study form Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The hope is that they can conduct a broader, population-based research to equip people with a better understanding of how alterations in microbiomes affect the development of kidney stones.

Tasian and his colleagues are planning to investigate the microbiomes of children and adolescents further. Risk did seem to decrease as time passed after taking these antibiotics, the researchers write, but it remained elevated for up to five years. Previous research has shown that children receive more antibiotics than any other age group, and 30 percent of antibiotics prescribed during ambulatory care visits are inappropriate.

One co-author of the current paper, Jeffrey Gerber, MD, PhD, is an infectious diseases specialist at CHOP who leads programs in antibiotic stewardship-;an approach that guides healthcare providers in prescribing the most appropriate antibiotic for each patient's specific infection, with the aims of improving individual outcomes and reducing the overall risk of antibiotic resistance.

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